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  ENGLISH GRAMMAR  
Alphabet
Vowels & Consonants
Word Building
Sentences
Articles
Cardinal-Ordinal Numbers
Noun
Pronoun
Verb
Adverb
Adjective
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection
Tenses
Opposites
Active & Passive Voice
Direct & Indirect Speech
Vocabulary
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct and Indirect Speech Uses of Direct-Indirect Speech Direct into Indirect Speech
Questions Statements Commands and Requests Statements
Assertive statements Exclamations and Wishes Statements
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT SPEECH

When two persons talk to each other using I, you & we pronouns their conversation / dialogue is called DIRECT SPEECH.

INDIRECT SPEECH (REPORTED SPEECH)

When a third person quotes/refers to that conversation / dialogue by using He, She, It and They, it is called INDIRECT SPEECH. (REPORTED SPEECH).

If we want to refer to this conversation in exact words used by them, we put them between inverted commas (“_________”) and such conversation / dialogue is called DIRECT SPEECH – it may be oral or written.

When we change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech / Reported Speech, we make certain changes as indicted below:

We use the conjunction “THAT” before the Indirect Speech (Conversations / Dialogue / Statement)
No inverted commas,question marks or exclamation marks are used in the indirect speech.
The pronoun is changed in person.
The tense is changed.
 
  Direct Speech   Indirect Speech
Simple Precent = Simple Past
Present continuous = Past continuous
Present Prefect = Past perfect
Simple Future = Simple Past
Future Continuous = Past continuous
Future Prefect = Past perfect
Simple Past = Past perfect
 
Note1: If the statement is a universal truth, then the tense will not change.
 
Note2: If the reporting verb is in present tense or future tense then the tense will not change.
Words expressing nearness in time or place (Adverb of place & time) are generally changed into words expressing distance. e.g.
 
  Direct Speech   Indirect Speech
Now = Then
Here = There
Ago = Before
Thus = So
Today / To night = That day / That night
Tomorrow = The next day
Yesterday = The day before / the previous day
Last night = The night before / the previous night
Come = Go
This & These = That & Those while it points out while reporting

If the verb in the Direct Speech is in Present Tense, then verbs in Indirect Speech/ Reported Speech are changed as follows:

  Direct Speech   Indirect Speech
Am / Is = Was
Are = Were
Have / Has = Had
Do not / Does not = Did not
Play / Plays = Played
Write / Writes = Wrote
Was / Were = Had been
Did not = Had not
Played = Had played
Wrote = Had written
Shall / Will = Should / Would
May play = Might play
Can = Could
  Note : There is no change in should , would, could, must, might.
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Direct and Indirect Speech Uses of Direct-Indirect Speech Direct into Indirect Speech
Questions Statements Commands and Requests Statements
Assertive statements Exclamations and Wishes Statements